Privacy Policy for CitiTalk

Privacy Policy

User Registration and Profile Information
What are the types of data provided by user in order to create its account over CitiTalk?
A user has to provide Username*, and Mobile Number* as a compulsory information to create account over CitiTalk.

What are the permissions CitiTalk demands from the user in order to facilitate user to use CitiTalk?
CitiTalk takes the permission of user to access following data/information from the phone:

  • SMS
  • Precise location based on GPS and Network
  • Contacts
  • Activity recognition
  • Modify or delete content of SD Card
  • Google Service Configuration
  • Connect and disconnect from Wi-Fi
  • Full network access
  • View network connections
  • View Wi-Fi connections
  • Run at startup
  • Control vibration
  • Prevent phone from sleeping

What is the minimum age to use CitiTalk?
CitiTalk accesses and shares the location of the user which requires users to have a medium level of maturity. So, 13+         age is a good age to use CitiTalk.

When and how the mobile number of the user is verified?
The Mobile number of the user is verified through secure One Time Password sent to the mobile number provided by the user at the time of registration. The process of mobile number verification is both manual as well as automated.

Who can see my mobile number?
The mobile number of a user will be visible to only those people who already have that number in their contact list. CitiTalk doesn’t share mobile number of any user with anyone. However, it can be shared with the competent legal authority of India as and when required.

What will happen if anyone else uses my mobile number to create an account on CitiTalk?
CitiTalk doesn’t take responsibility of these cases. However, user can send a mail to cititalk.in@gmail.com mentioning this problem. CitiTalk is free to take any decision in this regard until or unless specified by any competent legal authority in India.

What are the information which makes the profile of the user and who can see it?
The constituent of profile of a user are:

  • Name
  • Mobile Number (visible to only those who already have mobile number of that user in its contact list)
  • Image
  • Posts created by that user
  • Status Message
  • Has the user permitted anyone to privately chat with the user
  • Gender
  • Age

User Activities over CitiTalk?

What are the activities a user can do over CitiTalk?
User can do following things over CitiTalk:

  • Create a Talk which is always Public. The Talk can contain text, image, sound, video and combination of one or many. The Talk will contain its location but the user has the choice to disallow other users to see it.
  • Respond to a Talk which is always public. Respond will always contain text, image, sound, video and combination of one or many.
  • Like a Talk.
  • ReTalk a Talk which is nothing but republishing of a Talk created by other user.
  • Share the Talk over other mobile apps.
  • Privately chat with the creator of the Talk if the creator has allowed other users to do so. But in this case, the contact details of the creator will not be visible to any user.
  • Privately chat with people in the contact list of the phone book of the user or with the chat groups of which user is a member.
  • Redeem Karmas against unique gift items and incentives.
  • Exchange Karmas with each other.

What are the type of content which can be published in a Talk?
Like any other social media platform, CitiTalk is a platform for constructive and healthy discussion among users of the same location. In all cases, CitiTalk reserves the right to decide the type of content which can be published over CitiTalk but in all cases, CitiTalk will neither publish nor allow anyone to publish any content which is abusive, violent, obscene, hate speech or encourages any of the above.

What is the mechanism for prevent abusive content?
In order to prevent receiving abusive content, a user has two options: Block the creator of the content; and report the Talk of any user as “abusive”. If a profile is being blocked by a larger set of users or if Talks of a user is reported abusive then it is manually verified by the CitiTalk Team.

What are the governing laws and the court of conflict resolution?
The laws of India are the governing laws for CitiTalk and High Court of Delhi is the court of conflict resolution for all cases.

Who owns the content of the Talk? Who is accountable for it? What is the role of CitiTalk?
CitiTalk assumes that the content of the Talk created by a user is the creation of the user and he or she is fully accountable for it. CitiTalk will not be responsible for any loss or damage to a user due to activities over CitiTalk by other users or loss or damage caused by the user to someone else by doing activities over CitiTalk. The role of CitiTalk is only that of a Technology provider which facilitates a user to publish content in a target loicality.

Data Security?
CitiTalk follows the best security practices. It uses secure cloud servers provided by one of the most reputed cloud service providers. Apart from that, CitiTalk uses a large number of third party services which are state-of-the-art in terms of security, robustness, and scalability. So data provided by users will be very secure and CitiTalk will take utmost care in protecting personal data of users and providing maximum security.

Disclaimer

CitiTalk is only a service provider which enables users to publish location based social media content and interact with other users. CitiTalk doesn’t take the responsibility of checking authenticity or ownership of any content published over it because CitiTalk assumes that any content published by a user over CitiTalk is creation of the user and the user is fully accountable for it. CitiTalk will not be responsible for any loss or damage caused by any user while using CitiTalk.

Freedom of Knowledge

Inputs in any product or service can be broadly categorized into two:
1. Inputs like basic raw materials, power, space, manual labor
2. Inputs like skills, knowledge, patented/copyrighted products/services, marketing, branding etc.
Knowledge
If we closely examine the rate of returns on these two types of inputs, we will find that 1st type of inputs have very low rate of returns (hence we can call them subsistence inputs) while 2nd type of inputs have higher rate of returns and knowledge is its basis (hence we can call them knowledge inputs).

If we observe people or organizations or nations, we will find that those which provide subsistence inputs have lesser income and are economically poor, marginalized, developing; while those which provide knowledge inputs have higher income and are rich, mainstream, developed.

Humans are the biggest creators, carriers, and users of knowledge. Hence, every nation tries to create suitable frameworks using which people of that nation can convert their knowledge into profitable products and services; and at the same time, seamlesslessly acquire & assimilate knoweldge from across the globe. This requires a number of institutions and endeavors, out of which these endeavors are also important:
1. Organize and standardize knowledge possessed by the people and introduce it in formal education; further promote R&D in this knowledge for its upgradation and developing suitable products and services out of it. It has to be done in a manner that the people who were orignial creator and owner of that knowledge should benefit the maximum; they have controlling powers; and they don’t have any entry barrier in using, acquiring, updating knowledge on their own. Further, the upgraded knowledge should become an integral part of the society and it must not become alient to it.

2. Acquire knowledge from different parts of the world and make it available to the people of the nation in the framework in which outside knowledge can be absorbed, assimilated; and can be made an integral part of the knowledge available to the society so that people can use outside knoweldge to create valuable products and services as well as synthesize outside knolwedge with native knolwedge so that healthy exchanges and advancements can happen.

In order to ensure free flow of knowledge among people, education, research labs, and market; native language (s) are primarily used by every nation because:
1. It eliminates any entry barrier for free flow of knowledge
2. It ensures better and faster process of making upgraded knowledge or outside knowledge integral
3. It ensures that there is no case of any social group become more privileged or having more competitive advantage against others

British India didn’t put enough efforts for either organizing and upgrading knowledge possessed by people and convert it into suitable products and services as well as making knowledge of the world outside India available to its people so that they can acquire, assimilate, upgrade it and further convert it into suitable products and services. It happened so because India was a colony and British didn’t want to empower Indians and make them competitor to the British economic interests.

However, after gaining independence, carried forward the British policies [God knows that why CONGRESS and Indian Scientists did that] of neither upgrading knowledge available to people and converting it into suitable products and services; nor knowledge from across the globe was made available to the masses and made integral part of the society so that people can themselves use outside knowledge to make suitable products and services.

This had multiple effects, like:
1. Most of the knowledge possessed by people never got organizaed, and upgraded; hence the the products and services using that knowledge remained globally non-competitive. In fact that knowledge, and products & services based on that knowledge became economically unviable, and obsolete. Hence people skilled in that knowledge became poor, marginalized, and dependent on government schemes and subsidies.

2. Most of the knowledge from outside countries were never made available to masses; hence most of the people don’t have a clue that what are the competitve methods of making different products and services. Also, they could never build capacity to upgrade outside knowledge and further establish themselves as globally knowledge leader or economically more competitive. Hence, most of the people can’t even comprehend the foreign knowledge.

3. In India, we have a system in which we provide a select minority of people knowledge, most of which is foreign origin, in a foreign language (English) so that this select group can act as a mediator between vast majority and outside India. This system has two major negative consequences. First, it is against the ethos of democracy. Second, this social group finds a disconnect between his knowledge and society around him. So signficantly large section of this group migrate to other nations. Those who stay back in India are socially disconnected and couldn’t contribute to the upgradation of existing knowledge of people and making it economically competitive. So, we have islands of knowledge in India which can be said to be TIME LAGGED POOR QUALITY CARBON COPY OF WEST.

If this detrimental policy continues then majority of the people can never become able to contribute knowledge inputs to any product/service and remain perpetually poor and economically handicapped.

We must have to create frameworks so that knowledge of the people can be organized and converted into useful products and services so that people can be brought out of poverty and contribute to making India the next superpower.

For this, there are few tasks which have to be done:
1. We must develop a linguistic framework for Indian languages in which knowledge can be expressed. For this, we might have to develop scientific terminologies in Indian languages; express scientific concepts and thoughts in Indian languages; and provide a guideline using which anyone can express thoughts and concepts in Indian languages.

2. We must develop a system using which students or anyone can collect information about trees, insects, plants, animals, geographical entities, diseases, anything and everything around them. This information needs to be processed by experts and further published in Indian languages so that larger mass can be informed about it.

3. We must develop a system using which existing traditional production systems can be located and their processes can be mapped. These knowledge maps need to be further studied, and standardized. Every University or institution of higher learning should be made partner in the process of mapping, studying, and standardizing production systems around them.

4. We must develop a system through which standardized knowledge can again reach to the society in both simplified as well as advanced forms. For this, we must organize workshops and training sessions through which standardized knowledge is disseminated to the people. Also, we must introduce the standardized knowledge in formal education so that trained worforce can be obtained for exploiting this standardized knowledge. Further efforts and investments can be made in R&D so that knowledge is continuously upgraded.

I, as an individual, along with some of my friends have tried to contribute to the first task of providing a linguistic framework for Indian languages in which knowledge can be expressed. In order to start with, we have tried out with Chemistry because the present Greeko-Latin based English Chemical Nomenclature used in India is completely disconnected with Indian languages. Also, most of the names of English Chemical Nomenclature do not have scientific rationality (Ex: Helios was Sun God, hence name Helium; Vanadise was Goddess of love & beauty, hence Venedium; Lithos means stone hence Lithium). So, we tried creating Indian names for elements. Example:

Aluminum: Suhaxapara सुहक्षपरा सु comes from सुचालक meaning conductor: the objective behind emphasizing this property is its being substitute of copper in electrical industry; also copper is limited. ह comes from हलका meaning light; point to be noted is Aluminum is light and hence used in aviation industry. क्ष comes from क्षयरोधी as Aluminum is resistant to corrosion and hence a better substitute to Iron in many industries; also emphasizing corrosion means we are taking it as a grand challenge. परा comes from परावर्ती meaning reflective. Pure Aluminum is extremely reflective and here परा also refers to group identity of Aluminum as every group has its group identity in this nomenclature system.

Similarly, we can name all the elements. This can be extended to organic compunds. Also, similar endeavors can be made in creating names in other Indian languages and further create a unified Indian Nomenclature System.
This effort is not targeted towards eliminating use of English, rather it is targeted towards expressing knowledge in Indian languages.

Your thoughts and your ideas are most welcome.

If you find this effort useful then kindly respond me.

प्रतीक्षा

-:काल:-

ज्योत्सना

प्रतिद्वन्दिनी की

गायत्र आँखों पर

से उतरकर

उनींदी बेचैनी का

कर रही सामना |

-:स्वयं से संवाद:-

मैं क्यों अधीर

कुम्हला जाती हूँ |

रवि बेचारा

रोज दोपहरी सेना लेकर

रजनी रजनी करता फिरता है

और उसके आने के पहले

थककर वापस सो जाता है |

तब इठलाती रजनी आकर

पवन के झोंके साथ मे लाकर

धीरे से उसकी आँखों पर

शीत बूँदें बरसा जाती है |

प्रातः अगले दिन वो उठता

लाल आँखों को मलता मलता

क्या जाने वह अनजाने में

रजनी के सपनों को हरता |

रोज फिर वही दिवा-संग्राम

ढूंढता रहता कण कण में वो

रजनी के आने का प्रमाण |

-:काल:-

मधुर – मधुरिमा – मनोरमा

मन – मादक – नव्योत्सना

पवन – प्रकृती – प्रणयोत्तमा

प्रकृती – शांत्योपासना |

-:दर्शक:-

एक कमलिनी

कमल प्रदीप

के प्रकाश में

होठों पर

मुस्कान लेकर

करवट करवट

बदल रही है |

लगी टकटकी

अदृश्य द्वार पर

जहाँ खड़ीं है

माला लेकर

अदृश्य चेतना |

-:स्वयं से संवाद:-

हार जो जाऊं

माला लेकर

हरिद्वार पर

तो हे हरि तुम

संबल देना |

कि बांसुरी की

धुन में ही मैं

खो जाऊं इस तरह कि मेरा

मूल रोम सब कुछ मिट जाए

फिर जब कभी बांसुरी बजेगी

मिल जायेगा मेरा प्रमाण

राधेश्याम राधेश्याम |

-:काल:-

समग्र सरिता

सरस संसार

सतत सीधी

शीतल धार|

-:दर्शक:-

डाले दृष्टी जब कोई

शब्दहीन इस सृष्टी पर

खो देगा वो ज्ञान चेतना

सम्मोहन के वृष्टी पर |

-:स्वयं से संवाद:-

प्रेम पछोड़ यमुना का छोर

बांसुरी धुनता वो चितचोर

पीहू पीहू कोकिल सम्वृत्ती

करती फिरू मैं हो विभोर |

-:दर्शक:-

ज्ञान चेतना की सीमा पर

उसकी भी निस्पंदन सीमा

फिर से मुझको हर जाती है |

-:उपसंहार:-

-:दर्शक:-

नहीं पता मैं क्या क्या भूला

नहीं पता मैं क्या क्या जाना

नहीं चेतना नहीं सृष्टी है

नहीं ज्ञान और नहीं दृष्टी है |

लक्ष्य न मेरा

दिशा न मेरी

शेष न कोई वांछा है |

रहूँ सदा मैं इसी घाट पर

इसी कर्म में इसी भूमि पर |

आयेगा यम तब करूँगा विनती

ले जा मुझको पर एक शर्त

अगला जन्म अगर मैं लू तो

इसी घाट पर इसी भूमि पर

हरित वृक्ष मैं बन जाऊं |

-:काल:-

आज पड़ा मिटटी का ढेर

उसी जगह वाल्मिक वेश में |

समीपस्थ है एक खँडहर

वहां कोई बैठा करती है

आँखों में सपने बुनती है

वही वही चिरातीत आग्रह

वही वही अनश्वर प्रतीक्षा |

Sur-Asur Conflict in India and its Effect in Present Times

Exploring history of Asia, I made few serious observations which i wanted to share here:

sur-a-asur

Background (till 2000 BC):
1. Sur (Devata) and Asur (Daanav, Rakshas) were equivalent entities equally worshiped in major parts of India and Middle East. Examples of Sur were Indra. Examples of Asur were Mitra, Varun. There were some common Gods like Varun and Agni which had equivalent endorsements in both in Sur and Asur followers. Apart from Sur & Asur, there were some higher powers like Rudra, Matri-devi etc. which was common to all.

2. Sur were more rural oriented civilizations with higher stress on inner science (called VIDYA in adhyatm) while Asur were urban oriented civilizations with higher stress on outer/material science (called AVIDYA). So, materially, technologically and culturally followers of Asurs were more powerful. They built great cities and human structures. In almost every Sur-Asur battles, they used to win. Those who followed Surs were identified as Aryans, Maanav etc. and those who followed Asurs were identified as Dasyus, Daanav etc.

3. Caste system was prevalent with high degree of caste mobilization (change of caste based on profession).

4. Individuals were independent to select any Sur or Asur as divine figure. Those who opted for Asurs were called Danav or Dasyus or similar names. Those who opted for Surs were known as Arya or maanav. So, Ravan who opted for Asur became a Danav while Ram who opted for Sur was Maanav or further Devata (an incarnation of Vishnu).

5. There was a common set of codes & practices through which they derived their spiritual legitimacy. This set can be said to be the previous version of Vedas or Gathas (ref: Zoroastrianism).

6. Followers of Surs were more concerned towards Vidya, therefore, they didn’t have any aggressive policy towards statehood or nationhood. In fact, being a less significant political entity, they stressed more on individualistic spiritual concerns. On the other hand, Asurs being more concerned with Avidya had very aggressive statehood policies. They stressed more on community behavior, common brotherhood, strict following of established conducts, strict order etc.

7. Majority of Kingdoms were followers of Asurs. Sarasvati-Sindhu civilization was the epitome of Asur civilization. Surs had nothing similar of that much grandeur. Majority of Middle-East and South Asia

8. There was no concept of religion; rather there was a concept of Dharma which meant a set of codes which people mutually agree to follow. Individuals had a lot of freedom to chose their faith. There was no compulsion. Same person can become follower of Sur and Asur in different parts of his/her life.

9. Indian subcontinent had nearly 30% global population and a much larger share of global production. Other large human settlements in Asia were in China (of size equivalent to that of India) and South-East Asia. Human civilizations in Middle East, North Africa, Central Asia and Europe were very small with very small population and negligible production. Almost all of them depended on India and China for most of their needs. India had immense influence on these regions. In plain words, it was an era in which India was overwhelmingly a super nation. Any event in India had immense impact elsewhere.

Things start changing that changed the Human History After 2000 BC
1. Harappa (Sarasvati-Sindhu Civilization) underwent great downfall due to drying up of Saraswati River.

2. The second possible event was the battle between Rama (a neutral King) & Ravana (Asur King) (which we find in Ramayana) in which Ravana got defeated. The divinity of Rama is endorsed in both Sur & Asur traditions. Interestingly, Zend Avesta which is the most prominent Asuric Text mentions Rama hundreds of times compared to Vedas which mention Rama only for few times. Though it doesn’t tell much about the fact that whether Rama was a Sur or Asur, but it clearly shows that he received respect, honor and praise among all.

These two events were big blow to Asuric ideas in Indian sub-continent and triggered the rise of Sur kingdoms in India. Followers of SUR celebrated it as a “victory of virtue against vice”. During this era, following things happened in Indian sub-continent:
a. Number and power of Asuric Kingdoms shrinked in India followed by rise of a large number of kingdoms or Janpads which claimed not to follow Surs.
b. Under the changed sociopolitical regime, Avidya was declared inferior and Vidya as superior. Material advancement was made an inferior activity compared to spiritual.
c. The whole civilization of Asurs was demonized.  Followers of Asurs were forced to the lower positions in the caste-system. They were given a different identity than that of Maanav.
d. Vedas were completely transformed from a neutral text to a Sur-text. The new transformed Vedas or the Neo-Vedas demonized Asurs, representing them in bad light. Similarly, an equivalent of Vedas was transformed into an Asuric text (Zend Avesta) in which Surs were demonized and Ashurs were represented as supreme divine entities.
e. Facing the threat from changing sociopolitics in Indian sub-continent, the Asuric kingdoms outside India started fearing that Asuric ideas are in danger.
f. Since most of the kingdoms in the Middle East were very small in population and economic surplus; they found it better to make uniform codes. It was needed to have better control over happenings in these kingdoms and keep it as much free from Indian influences as much possible; especially after the demise of Asuric power in India.
g. Due to Dharmik code of conduct, every new idea or proposition must have to be debated before it got acceptance (recall what used to happen in Buddhist Vihars). Nothing can be forced with a sword. Society was largely polytheistic. But due to changing environment in India, smaller kingdoms started moving towards stricter laws curbing human freedom.
h. In one of the major developments, Monotheism took birth in Middle East. Monotheism meant that there is
– only one code, one God, one text
– everyone has to conform to this single belief, no one can have a difference of opinion
– no one can criticize this “only one code”, if a person criticizes this “only one code” then this act will be called blasphemy and this act will be a punishable offense
Judaism and Zoroastrianism came up with these Monotheistic ideas.
i. In the beginning demonization process was slow but it became more intense with time. Recall followers of Asurs are still humans in Vedas while they become demons in Puraans.
j. Both Surs and Asurs intellectually boycotted each other despite appropriating concepts of each other. For example, Asurs are demonized but Asur gods Mitra, or neutral Gods like Varun & Agni are respected in Sur-texts. Similarly,  Indra is demonized while Varun & Agni are honored.

With time, Sur remained very much Dharmic in its character. It developed some characteristics like:
a. Polytheism, freedom of individual belief
b. Rigid immobile caste system
c. Non-aggressive outlook, therefore Sur following nations never preferred to go outside India for military conquests with some exceptions
d. Allow multiple ideas to peacefully co-exist, hence many ideas came into existence
e. No concept of believer, non-believer; no concept of aggressive conversion like Semitic religions

With time Asuric systems transformed itself into rigid monotheist civilizations. Judaism, Christianity and Islam are mature transformations while Zoroastrianism is a transition phase between Dharmik system and monotheism. They became aggressive belief systems and started outside expansion. They were able to impose monotheism upon small populations applying terror and violence, but their all efforts failed in India and China because they had very large populations.

Modern Context of this discussion
1. For India
a. India has lost its Asuric traditions which needs revival. Its revival has become very necessary for:
1. Creating an Indo-centric worldview
2. Explaining diff religions & civilizations in Indian perspective (as 1 above)
3. Some people may re-establish the ASURs in India. It will give the debate on Aryan Invasion a new dimension because those who supported SURs were Aryans and those who supported ASURs were Dasyus.
4. Presently, everyone in our country talks about VIDYA but AVIDYA has very little legitimacy in society. Once ASURic ideas will come into prominence, AVIDYA will get public participation. It will help India a lot in evolving itself into a materially & scientifically rich civilization with big infrastructure, stronger defense and aggressive geopolitics.
5. The immobility of caste system can be eliminated after revival of Asurs. Since followers of Asurs have been forced to to the lowest strata of caste system; revival of Asurs will empower these lower caste pepole
c. Connections between Dharmas and religions/monotheism can be established keeping interests of India as of prime importance. It will help in building good relations among diff Dharmik & monotheist communities living in India and other parts of the world
d. Hinduism will be enriched by diversification into a stream which was killed 4000 years ago

2. For world:
a. The information about evolution of diff sociopolitical systems can be explained, especially in the Middle-East and ways can be identified through which conflicts can be resolved and a framework for mutual-coexistence can be developed.
b. Revival of pure Ashuric civilizations and other Suric civilizations outside India.

River Saraswati: A new hope & icon for resurgent India

Introduction
Sarasvati: A real river which was denied a real existence and given a mythical identity is being revived now. It is interesting to see that a large number of geological studies including satellite mapping, underground drills and archaeological surveys have found out many interesting things which  are going to have profound impact on India and world. Let me list a few of the explorations:

a. A vast network of underground river-type water network ranging from Himalayas, trajecting through the regions of Himachal, Haryana, Rajasthan,Gujarat, and Cholistan (Pak) exists which contains water at a depth of 50-60 meters

b. ONGC has started its drilling in many parts of Rajasthan to extract this underground water of river Saraswati for local consumption @tends of thousands of liters of water per day from the depth of 35-40 meters. For surprise, the age of water from majority of drills have been found to be 4000 years old!! it means that water is resting beneath the earth for 4000 years!!!

c. Nearly 2000 out of 3000 sites associated with Indus Valley civilization are in the Sarasvati river basin

Research findings and its simulation (done at IISER)
sarasvati

The Politics of Research and Exploration

Research and exploration to these findings were regularly hindered by  secular governments in the center and state. But since satellite images and geological studies done in different times by scientists of BARC, ISRO, ASI, Sarasvati Nadi Shodh Prakalp, ONGC, Geological Survey of India, Central Groundwater Authority and many other organizations have now proven the existence of the river, ruling governments in Center, Haryana and Rajasthan which were earlier opposing the existence of this river are now seeing it as a political opportunity.

Some of the associated major political developments include:
a. In 2002, NDA Government under the then Union Culture Minister Jagmohan in June 2002  announced excavations to trace the river’s course. He named a team of four experts – Baldeo Sahai of ISRO, Ahmedabad, archaeologist S Kalyan Raman, glaciologist Y K Puri and water consultant Madhav Chitle – for the task. But even earlier, States like Haryana had begun their study of the ‘underground river.’

b. Jaipal Reddy the then Culture Minister slashed the planned budget of the above project from Rs 36.02 crore to Rs 4.98 crore in order to keep a SECULAR IDENTITY of the government.

c. As a head of Parliamentary Standing Committee on Transport, Tourism and Culture; Sitaram Yechury of CPI(M) castigated probe agencies for ‘wasting’ time and money over the study of the mystery river. He stated “The ASI has deviated in its working and has failed in spearheading a scientific discipline of archaeology. A scientific institution like the ASI did not proceed correctly in this matter.”

d. A non-government organization (NGO), Saraswati Nadi Sodh Sansthan, has also been working for the revival of the ancient river through its entire track. Two major seminars were held on this issue on October 22, 2008 and November 21, 2009 at Kurukshetra where representatives from ONGC, Geological Survey of India and Indian Space Research Organisation were invited. This gave a strong momentum.

e. Excavations in Thed Rajasthan unearthed an entire city on the banks of the dried river. Further mapping of nearly 3000 sites associated with 4000 BC to 1500 BC in North-western India shown that 2000 of them lie in the Sarasvati River Valley!!!! This study followed by Satellite images compelled the caretakers of SECULARISM to accept the existence of River Sarasvari!!

f. In a major development, the SECULAR Government’s first acknowledgement came in response to an unstarred question in Rajya Sabha on December 3 2009 by Prakash Javadekar (BJP), who wanted to know whether satellite images & underground explorations had “established the underground track of Saraswati, and if so, why should the precious water resources not be exploited to meet growing demands.” Since the issue was political and had association with nearly 20 crore living in western & northern India. SO, the Union Water Resources Ministry quoted in writing the conclusion of a study jointly conducted by scientists of ISRO, Jodhpur and the Rajasthan Government’s Ground Water Department, published in the Journal of Indian Society of Remote Sensing. The government quoted that “clear signals of palaeo-channels on the satellite imagery in the form of a strong and powerful continuous drainage system in the North-West region and occurrence of archaeological sites of pre-Harappan, Harappan and post-Harappan ages beyond doubt indicate the existence of a mighty palaeo-drainage system of the Vedic Saraswati river in this region… The description and magnanimity of these channels also matches with the river Saraswati described in the Vedic literature”

Scope for National Water Grid

National Water Grid is also expecting a big scope in these findings as it will assist in following future activities:
a. Diverting parts of water of rivers like Sutlej, Yamuna and some other small rivers through canals to the age-old pathway of Saraswati River. This will in a way commence the interlinking of rivers in Northern India
b. Revival of this river is going to support over 20 crore people directly or indirectly in the states of Haryana, rajasthan, Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh. In fact Pak will be also indirectly benefited.
c. It is going to help Water Grid in making its increase its sphere of activities over a larger region and on a bigger cause
d. The river, when revived will flow through Rann of Kachh converting this vast dry-land into great greenary
e. The revival plan includes that the river will be made navigable. So, a new era of inland navigation in North Western India will be ushered

Tectonic Impact of these research on History

These developments are going to have profound impact on the history of India. Major expected impacts include
a. End to the conception that Sarasvati was a mythical river, not a real one
b. Renaming of the Indus Valley Civilization as Indus Sarasvati Civiliation
c. End of Aryan Invasion Theory !!! hence end of theories like nomadic Aryans destroyed the urbanized Harappans
d. End of the Arya-Dravida racial theory
e. All dates of Indian ancient history will change

New Debates

Some new  set of debates will start  which includes:
a. What was the culture of Indus-Sarasvati people? Was it Vedic?
b. What is the chronology of Vedic and Indus-Sarasvati civilization
c. How will the presence of Hindu deities like Mitra, Varuna, Indra in Central Asia and in Middle Eastern civilizations be explained? Since there will be no Aryan Migration theory so how will Indian influence in these regions be explained?
d. What was the expected date of Mahabharata war?
e. What exactly happened to the mighty Sarasvati River, will it happen to any other river? If yes then in what conditions?
f. What was the flow of culture from rural Vedic civilization to urban Harappan civilization then back to a mixture of rural-urban Janpads? Why this path?
g. The governance structure of Indus-Sarasvati civilization is still unexplained, so how will this be defined? Findings of the old City of Dwarka has lot of meanings. But was Dwarka the Capital city of this civilization with each center of the civilization having a kind of quasi-democratic government which facilitated the great development the form of which is still unknown to human civilization? Was it something like an attempt to create Sata-Yuga?
h. Where do urbanization find space in Vedas? Was Vedic era divided in multiple eras each having diff perspective towards life, nature and philosophy?
i. The complex script & language of Indus-Sarasvati is still beyond conclusion. What will be the new discourse around it? Will Dravidian Origin survive or Indo-Aryan origin survive?

Events will continue…………

In the political sphere of India, Nationalist forces will find a new dimension of asserting the Indianness of everything ranging from Vedas to Indus-Sarasvati. On the other hand, non-nationalist forces including those of communists, “secularists”, Dravidians and Nehruvians will find it difficult to divide & mislead people by dividing and confusing them in the name of races (Aryan-Dravidian); castes (Aryans are upper caste people while natives are backwards or Lower Caste people); or foreign origin of the idea of India (thus supporting the British Ideas of conquering India to make it civilized) and many more things. What will be written in Indian textbooks? What will happen to SECULARISM which tries to associate itself with anything non-nationalist?

It is sure shot that Hindutva forces will showcase the world the revival of River Sarasvati as an evidence of greatness and oldness of Hindu civilization. Moreover the greatness with which the cities were built and governed; economic activities managed; and peace & stability ensured will find new creative expressions in all art & visual forms creating as much impact as that of the Mahabharata & Ramayana. People will take more and more interest in ancient Indian texts and will try to explain Indus-Sarasvati civilization creating a fresh generation of proud Indians which has the knowledge about motherland and pride of being Indian.

One of the most important areas where revival of Sarasvati river and establishment of the idea of Indus-Sarasvati civilization will be the impact on Scientific community and Intellectuals of India. This single event will:
a. Make Indians feel pride in all speheres of Science, technology, business, administration and many other fields.

b. If Sarasvati river is desired to be kept clean then it will create enormous momentum in Scientific Community to develop river ecosystems and sewage treatment systems.The whole of urban lifestyle can be redefined leading to large number of innovations in the field of humanities, Sciences, Engineering and Environmental Studies.

c. If people are strongly motivated then the new settlements around this river will be developed along the foorsteps of Indus-Sarasvati Civilization creating a large number of clean & planned cities and urban settlements in North-Western India. These cities will act as masterpiece inspiring all other cities of the sub-continent.

d. Political Pandits will find a new scope to devise a new form of governance which will be egalitarian and democratic like Indus-Sarasvati Cities.

e. Communists which are currently the biggest opponents of accepting Harappan Culture a Vedic Culture should take this truth as an opportunity to rethink and reposition themselves. They can propose different kind of governance models which will ensure equality; rule of Law; minimum Government and maximum Governance; and how the same can be traced back to the Vedic periods giving their ideas a strong legitimacy and Indian outlook. Current communists are good for nothing. They have no idea about India. They just follow Hegel, Marx and all other western people which considered India to be a pre-history: a land of nomads, uncivilized and mystics. So, proposing new models for governance will give communists an opportunity to wash their sins and contribute to the resurgence of great Civilization called Bharat. (Again here Bharat doesn’t mean Hindu or communal)

f. Secularists try to associate anything Indian or Hindu or Vedic with communalism. It is absolutely wrong. I don’t know how the denial of existence of any river makes one person SECULAR. Contribution to revival of Sarasvati also needs redefining SECULARISM. Secularism is all about allowing multiple peaceful progressive ideas to co-exist without fear of prosecution or subversion. In no way Secularism means supporting Aryan Invasion Theory. So, revival of this river will also give SECULARISTS to reinvent themselves and try to explore the atheist parts of Hinduism, Vedas and try to link it with the Harappan Civilization. This will be a completely green zone giving them a great opportunity to wash their sins and contribute to the resurgence of great Civilization called Bharat. (Again here Bharat doesn’t mean Hindu or communal)

All of these developments will create enormous opportunities for intellectuals & scientists to make experiments, free their imagination from preconceived notions of badness about everything Indian and create something out of blue which doesn’t exist in India and World.

Appendix-1: Outlook of plans for revival of the river Sarasvati

The details of the projects which could accomplish the Rebirth of River Sarasvati with optimal use of
1. Glacial sources of water,
2. Water harvesting and
3. Interlinking of rivers as part of a National Water Grid to achieve Vision 2020.

Brief Overview of the plans and ongoing projects are listed here (http://www.eshiusa.org/Articles/Sarasvati.pdf)

Some References:
1. Sarasvati River: Bharatiya civilization http://www.eshiusa.org/Articles/Sarasvati.pdf
2. Collection of News Articles: http://www.stephen-knapp.com/recent_research_on_the_sarasvati_river.htm
3. Saraswati – the ancient river lost in the desert, A. V. Sankaran, IISC http://www.iisc.ernet.in/currsci/oct25/articles20.htm
4. The Saraswati was a Major River by K S Valdiya http://www.omilosmeleton.gr/pdf/en/indology/The_Saraswati_was_a_Major_River.pdf
5. http://maasaraswati.blogspot.in/
6. Many more articles not to make the list longer

Industrialization & Knowledge System-Part 2

This is the 2nd part of Knowledge & Information Series:   First Article on Knowledge & Information System

I will start with a set of self-explanatory images.
Inter-industry relationships
This image gives an introduction to any working (industrial) process in which the process starts with some raw materials; it undergoes some processes; intermediate steps and finally becomes a consumable product. This consumable product may further be processed or value may be added to it by some other industries before it is finally consumed by end users. This entire process requires continuous participation of Governance Institutions; consultants/service providers; academia/R&D institutions and NGOs which carry forward the idea of Corporate Social Responsibility.

Now let us apply this understanding to the work of a blacksmith. A blacksmith uses 5-10 types/sizes of iron & wood; performs some processes; and finally manufactures upto 80-100 diff types of products. See Image below:
RM: Raw Material; ISP: Intermediate Step Product; FP: Final Product
Knowledge-Map-Blacksmith

Now if we standardize the Final Product (FP); it means the measurable characteristics or quality of the FP is fixed and accordingly FPs of same type are defined as Grade-1, Grade-2, Grade-3 and Grade-4 Products; then there will be two set of effects.

Effects of Type-1: The market of products of a Blacksmith is no more a Market of Lemons (Market for Lemons means a market with uncertain quality & price). This will help in fixing of price of FP of diff grades. It will empower both producers as well as consumers.

Effects of Type-2: When we have fixed quality of products then we can reverse map the entire production process; dig out the intermediate steps and can do following things:
a. Specify the entire process (process specification)
–  substitute/club some of the processes
–  automate some of the processes
– develop study material which can be imparted for skill-building & skill upgradation
b. Optimize entire process
c. substitute some of the technologies
d. substitute some of the raw materials

Now all these activities generate a lot of Knowledge & Information which can be further converted into Intellectual Properties (Patents, Copyrights, trade secrets etc.). This generated knowledge can be further standardized and used for:
i. Formal Education System
ii. Transfer of knowledge to industries to increase their quality, productivity and make them innovative

This entire process has been put in the image below:

Effects of Knowledge Mapping

This basic ideas described above is the core of industrialization or industrial progress or innovation or development of diff products/services.

Further, we can introduce assembly line on the whole work of blacksmith and employ one person for each manufacturing step. Statistics shows that productivity of each blacksmith increases by up to hundred times!!! All the poverty and miseries of blacksmith will vanish and they will become power economic agents.

Industrial cluster is a large group of industries working in same sector and preferably located at same place. For example, Firozabad has hundreds of bangles or glassware manufacturers then they together can be called as a cluster. If knowledge mapping and knowledge & information is generated at cluster level then there is sufficiently large number of supporting & encouraging factors. Any country needs to work on its traditional clusters and transform them into modern manufacturing industries so that they can compete globally as well as support such a large population of India.

Now Let us examine the role played by IITs or hundreds of colleges & universities in this process (discussed above). We can clearly see that none of these great institutions have ever reached out to traditional industries and tried to create/develop any knowledge out of it (except few which I don’t know or may may ver rare people know). It is very painful that none of these institutions have any vision or perspective or approach in this direction. If we take the case of UP, it has large number of industrial clusters even in 2013, after witnessing 250 years of instability, anti-industry governance and gross negligence by educated/intellectual class.  Painfully, there are many definitions of “cluster” each used by diff set of institutions. For example, trade bodies recognize more than 80 clusters in 2012, Planning Commission recognizes only 42. On the other hand, real estimate of no of active + dormant (& about to die) clusters in UP is more than 250.

If IITs or any of these great institutions are asked questions that why have they not created any knowledge or done anything for industries in India, IITs always try to blame others including governance, industries etc. IITs never recognize that they have been given extra privileges and resources in a poor nation; so they must give back something.

Global Trends of Economy & Population Across Ages-1

Note:
* This is a multiple part series of articles in which we will discuss Trends of Global GDP & Population.
* Data used: Maddison Database from Groningen Growth and Development Center. Maddison Database is the most accepted database used by economic historians for understand economic history of the past.
* References: http://www.rug.nl/research/ggdc/ http://www.ggdc.net/Maddison/other_books/HS-8_2003.pdf
* I will add more references with time.

Let us start with two following images:

Global GDP trends across ages.

Global GDP trends across ages: 1-2001 AD.

Global Population Trends 1-2001 AD

Global Population Trends 1-2001 AD

These two images are graphical representation of following tables respectively:

Table-1 Global GDP Trend 1-2001 AD

Population Table 1-2001 AD

Population Table 1-2001 AD

Table-2, Global Population Trend 1-2001 AD

Population Trend 1-2001 AD

Population Trend 1-2001 AD

What do these two figures suggest? Some inferences can be easily made:
1. India was not a poor country till very recently that is 1700 AD and it declined steeply after that making India homeland to largest number of poor and hungry people.
2. China: another superpower of all times also had good economy till very recently that is somewhat near to 1820 AD after which it started declining.
3. Western Europe started as a minor economic power and remained so for a long period for a long time. It slowly caught up with Asian superpowers after enlightenment in Europe but the pace of growth was very low. Growth after 1820 was phenomenal and within 50 years, it emerged as the absolute superpower.
4. US (+Canada) is a late entrant in the world economic kabaddi and its growth was enormous between 1820-1913 which continued till 1950. After that, it started declining but it still contributes to a quarter of world economy.

Now let us do some more analysis. Let us observe Economy/Population ratio over 1-2001 AD for all nations/group of nations. Simple arithmetic gives following graph & table (with only upto 2 places of decimal).

GDP share-Population share ratio

GDP share-Population share ratio

Table-3, Global share in GDP Vs Global Share in Population

Table for GDP share-Population share

Table for GDP share-Population share

From this graph & table, we can make following inferences:
1. For a large part of human civilization, share in global population and share in global GDP are almost proportional
2. Western Europe, Japan & US+ are nations/group of nations which have higher ratio
3. Western Europe started deviation from the normal ratio (of nearly 1) somewhere after 1300. This needs closer examination from more historical data.
4. US+ started deviation from the traditional ratio 1 somewhere after 1700 AD and this process got a lot of momentum after 1820.
5. after 1700, ration of India and China started felling below 1 at a steep rate and fell to the minimum at around 1970s after they started catching up with the rest of the world. Eatsren Europe, USSR and other parts of Asia saw positive deviation from 1 during this period but they are felling down to become comparable to India & China.
6. This part of research requires a more sophisticated data with greater details to make any historical account.

I will discuss more in details, pl wait for the next post.